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Diseases of superficial veins

You can see the different stages of vein diseases below. In the respective section, you can find out more about the anatomical explanation of the disease, the disease itself, its symptoms, possible prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Please note that the symptoms may be combined. An accurate diagnosis can be made if you consult a phlebologist and undergo a duplex ultrasound.

  115 K. Barona Street, Riga

Superficial vein insufficiency is the cause of different degrees of varicose veins

THE VEINS ARE DIVIDED INTO GROUPS DEPENDING ON THEIR LOCALISATION AND DIAMETER:

Telangiectasias

Spider veins (<1.0 mm in diameter) are caused by venous hypertension when the intradermal capillary veins dilate. Their appearance can sometimes suggest changes in the deep vein system. However, it is the cosmetic defect that concerns most patients.

Reticular veins

Their diameter is < 3.0 mm. Reticular veins are located in the hypodermis and their dilatation is not clinically significant but causes a visual defect.

Trunk veins and their main branches

Their diameter is > 3.0 mm; in case of abnormality, they cause both clinically and cosmetically significant changes with significant varicose veins, sensation of heaviness, itching, impaired skin trophism.

Lateral branches

They branch off from the trunk vein. Varicose changes in the lateral branches occur when the wall of a blood vessel unevenly dilates, and blood counter-flow occurs. This results in impaired venous outflow.

Perforator veins

Damage to the valves of this vein causes venous reflux from the deep vein system to the superficial veins. Insufficiency of isolated perforator veins is sometimes observed. Damage to the perforator veins in the lower legs often causes venous atrophic ulceration.

Veselas vēnas, skaistas kājas - 5

TIRED LEGS 

A non-specific sign, but it may indicate leg vein overload or damage. There may be no external symptoms.
Try to eliminate risks. Do exercises for the calf muscles. Consult a phlebologist. 

TREATMENT:

  • compression therapy, 
  • remedial exercise, 
  • drugs.
Par vēnām 2

 

VARICOSE CAPILLARIES OR TELANGIECTASIAS

They appear as small, dilated blue veins or spider veins. They are often mistaken for a 'bruise'.

Telangiectasias (<1.0 mm in diameter), (capillary network, spider veins) are formed when the venous hypertension causes the intradermal capillary veins to dilate. Their appearance can sometimes suggest changes in the deep vein system. However, it is the cosmetic defect that concerns most patients.

Reticular veins (< 3.0 mm in diameter) are located in the hypodermis and their dilatation has no clinical significance, but like the reticular veins, they cause visual defects.

Kā izskatās kapilāru varikoze jeb teleangektāzijas

  

Kapilāru varikozes kosmētiskie defekti

    HOW DANGEROUS IT IS?

    They are not clinically dangerous and cause only cosmetic defects. They appear more in women as they grow older. They are rather rare in men. Consultation with a phlebologist is highly recommended. Can be treated by sclerotherapy or laser procedures. Hormonal contraception or HRT is not recommended.

    TREATMENT:

    •  sclerotherapy,  
    • laser therapy,   
    • thermocoagulation, 
    • drugs.

     

    VENOUS NODES 

    Varicose veins are usually the first symptom noticed by the patient. The cause of varicose or dilated veins is damage to the valves of trunk veins VSM and VSP.

    In case of abnormality of trunk veins and their main branches (>3.0 mm in diameter) they cause both clinically and cosmetically significant changes with significant varicose veins, sensation of heaviness, itching, impaired skin trophism.

    We recommend consulting a phlebologist in case of venous nodes. A duplex ultrasound scan of the leg veins is required.

     

    Vēnu varikoze jeb vēnu mezgli

     

    Vēnu varikoze 2

    WHAT TO DO?

    First, eliminate the venous reflux of the damaged trunk vein and only then remove the varicose nodes, not the other way round.

    TREATMENT

    Surgical treatment of the veins based on diagnostic data. you can choose:

    • sclerotherapy,
    • endovenous surgery.

    SWELLING OF THE LEGS

    Swelling of the legs, just like varicose vein nodes, is usually the first symptom noticed by the patient. The cause of varicose or dilated veins is damage to the valves of trunk veins VSM and VSP.

    In case of abnormality of trunk veins and their main branches (>3.0 mm in diameter) they cause both clinically and cosmetically significant changes with significant varicose veins, sensation of heaviness, itching, impaired skin trophism.

    A consultation of a phlebologist is necessary. Undergo a duplex ultrasound scan of the leg veins. First, eliminate the venous reflux of the damaged trunk vein and only then remove the varicose nodes, not the other way round. 

    Pietūkušas kājas un kāju tūskas piemērs
    Kāju tūska

    TREATMENT

    In case of oedema, diagnosis is important to identify the cause of the swelling:

    • venous insufficiency,
    • lymphostasis,   
    • cardiac insufficiency,  
    • obesity, 
    • other cause. 

    The underlying disease is treated to reduce the swelling.

     

    PIGMENTATION 

    Brownish-red spots usually appear on the inside of the lower legs. They are associated with prolonged venous stasis but can be a symptom accompanying other conditions.   

    Be sure to consult a phlebologist, dermatologist, or specialist in laser therapy. Pigmentation should be taken extremely seriously, and action should be taken as soon as possible, as it can be associated with serious problem of deep veins which, if not treated, can lead to incurable vein damage with extremely unpleasant consequences for the rest of your life.  

    The underlying cause of pigmentation is often neglected for an unreasonably long time, as we are used to freckles, haematomas (bruises) and other visual changes of the skin, attributing them to everyday micro-injuries. Be careful, observe and take care of yourself. Consult a doctor if you have any suspicions.

      Pigmentācija

       

      Pigmentācija - trofiskās čūlas priekšvēstnesis

      TREATMENT

      In case of pigmentation, diagnosis is important to establish the cause of the pigmentation and eliminate it. Pigmentation can suggest extremely severe vein disease with a high risk of progression, which can complicate the rest of your life.

      SUBSEQUENT TREATMENT:

      • Q switch laser therapy,
      •  IPL laser therapy, 
      • local drug treatment.
         

       

      TROPHIC ULCER

      There are many forms of trophic ulcers (they are also called chronic wounds) and they are caused by various reasons. The most common ones can be divided into three large groups – venous, arterial, and neuropathic.

      Th. A consultation of a vascular surgeon or phlebologist is compulsory. Further treatment is carried out according to doctor’s instructions.

      Venous leg ulcers as the most severe manifestation of CVI are often painful, exuding, cause restricted movement and social isolation and worsen the quality of life for about 1-5% of the population. They can also be of ischaemic origin (atherosclerotic blockage of the arteries). Localised in the legs below the knee. 

        Trofiska čūla 1

         

        Trofiska čūla 2

        TREATMENT

        Accurate diagnosis is important, including a consultation of a vascular surgeon (angiosurgeon) in case of an ulcer.   

        • compression therapy with low-tension compression bandages is a MUST in case of venous insufficiency ulcers;  
        • wearing compression stockings – special stockings for ulcers;  
        • drug therapy.

        DO YOU NEED HELP?

        The Baltic Vein Clinic has 5 operating rooms and day care facilities. Consultations are also provided at the following branches of Veselības centrs 4 as well as on trips (see: www.venas.lv) :

        • 115 Kr. Barona Street ("Baltic Vein Clinic" – main building)
        • 50 Skanstes Street ("Dermatology Clinic")
        • 410 Brīvības gatve ("Jugla Clinic")
        • 15A Duntes Street, 3rd, 4th floor ("Capital Clinic Riga")
        • 180 Brīvības Street, 3rd floor ("Department of Diagnostis", "Veselības centrs 4")
        • 1 Grebenščikova Street, Riga ("Diagnostic Centre")
        • 18 Baznīcas Street ("Anti-Aging Institute")
        • 10A Ģimnāzijas Street,2 а, Daugavpils (Private Clinic "Ģimenes veselība")
        • 39A Talsu Street, Ventspils ("Pārventa Outpatient Facility")
        • 10 Pededzes Street , Mārupe (Mārupe Doctorate)
           

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